Misty rain and reflections in puddles blur boundaries between land, river and sky.

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Bridges cross the river boundaries which once isolated the two islands. City streets make everyday connections across an ancient, defensive frontier.  This is the Île de la Cité, where Paris began, protected by the river but also connected by it.  Before the road-building Romans arrived, the Parisii travelled the river in lightweight boats made of woven branches.

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Aspen poplars, lining the quays, are a native species well adapted to wet conditions.  Aspens, growing on the marshy fringes of the island, may well have helped to stabilise the land where the Gaulish Parisii tribe first settled.  After the Roman take-over, in 52 AD, marshy uncertainty was tamed by stone quays, while wattle and daub huts gave way to a fortified palace.  New boundaries were being drawn.

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In response to The Daily Post’s weekly photo challenge: “Boundaries.”